Super Audio CD
China Video Disc
Video Single Disc
DVD (High Density DVD, High-Definition
DVD or High Definition Digital Video Disc) is a
high-density optical disc format designed for the storage of
high-definition video and data.
HD DVD name is derived from its origination as a high-definition extension
of the DVD optical disc format. An HD DVD disc can store substantially
more data than a standard DVD, because of the shorter wavelength (405 nm)
of the blue-violet laser (DVDs use a 650-nm-wavelength red laser and CDs
an infrared 780 nm laser), which allows more information to be stored
digitally in the same amount of physical space. In comparison to Blu-ray
Disc, which also uses a blue laser, HD DVD has less information capacity
per layer (15 gigabytes instead of 25). HD DVD shares the same basic disc
structure as a standard DVD: back-to-back bonding of two 0.6 mm thick, 120
mm diameter substrates. The 30 GB dual-layer HD DVDs have been used
on nearly every movie released in this format.
HD DVD standard was jointly developed by a group of consumer electronics
and PC companies, spearheaded by Toshiba. It is currently competing with
the Blu-ray Disc format for wide adoption as the preferred next generation
optical standard, similar to the videotape format war between VHS and
November 19, 2003, the DVD Forum decided that they would back the HD DVD
to be the HDTV successor of the DVD. At this meeting they renamed it to HD
DVD, while it had been previously called the 'Advanced Optical Disc'
(AOD). This is not a very surprising extension of the previous DVD-R/RW
versus DVD+R/RW war, where - (dash) was the format defended by DVD Forum,
and + (plus) the format defended by the DVD+RW Alliance. The DVD Forum
generally has focus on CE (Consumer Electronic) and Japanese market
development (where CE happens to be very strong). The DVD+RW Alliance has
invested more on the PC market with technologies such as Background
Formatting and defect management through 'Mount Rainier'
CES 2006, Microsoft announced that there will be an external add-on HD DVD
drive for the Xbox 360 game console, due in late 2006. Also at CES 2006,
'companies backing HD DVD said that nearly 200 titles would be available
for the format by the end of the year.'
On March 31, 2006, Toshiba
released their first HD DVD player in Japan at ¥110,000 ($934). HD DVD was
released in United States on April 18, 2006, with players priced at $499
current specification version for HD DVD-ROM and HD DVD-Rewritable is
version 1.0. The specification for HD DVD-R is currently at 0.9. The first
HD DVD-ROM drives were expected to be unveiled by Q4 2006, with mass
production to start in Q1 2007. The actual product launch of both CE and
PC units occurred in late 2006.
DVD has a single-layer capacity of 15 GB and a dual-layer capacity of 30
GB. Toshiba has announced a triple-layer disc which offers 45 GB of
storage. HD DVD can offer both the current DVD and HD DVD formats on one
disc, which means that special HD DVD discs will play in any DVD player,
old or the new high definition players (similar to the Blu-ray/DVD hybrid
developed by JVC). This makes retail marketing and shelf space management
easier. For consumers, shopping is simplified as they can simply buy a
movie that plays in any DVD player in their house, standard definition or
high definition. The HD DVD format also can be applied to current red
laser DVDs in 5, 9, 15 and 18 GB capacities which offers an even lower
cost option to content owners wanting to sell short form content.
data layer of an HD DVD disc is 0.6 mm below the surface, akin to the
common DVD. The numerical aperture of the optical pick-up head is 0.65,
compared with 0.6 for DVD and 0.85 for Blu Ray aperture and 0.1 surface
layer (a smaller surface layer larger numerical aperture allow for tighter
focus and so increased data density). Both of the new formats are backward
compatible with DVDs and both employ the same video compression
techniques: MPEG-2, Video Codec 1 (VC1) and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. However, the
Blu-ray format is clearly inferior in light of recent comparisons.
DVD can be mastered with up to 7.1 channel surround sound using the linear
(uncompressed) PCM, Dolby Digital and DTS formats also used on DVDs. In
addition, it also supports Dolby Digital Plus and the lossless formats
Dolby TrueHD and DTS HD. Currently, most DVD movies are made with 5.1
channels of surround sound. There are relatively few titles that offer 6.1
channels of surround sound. On HD DVD the Dolby formats are mandatory,
meaning that a Dolby Digital or Dolby Digital Plus track may be used as
the sole soundtrack on a disc, because every player will have a decoder
that can process any of these bitstreams. For lossless audio in movies in
the PCM, Dolby TrueHD or DTS-HD formats, HD DVD discs support encoding in
up to 24-bit/192 kHz for two channels, or up to eight channels of up to
24-bit/96 kHz encoding. For reference, even new big-budget Hollywood films
are mastered in only 24-bit/48 kHz, with 16-bit/48 kHz being common for
HD DVD format supports a wide variety of resolutions, from low-resolution
CIF and SDTV up to HDTV formats such as 720p, 1080i and 1080p. All movie
titles released so far have had the feature encoded in 1080p (although the
only player currently available that supports 1080p is the Xbox 360 HD-DVD
drive), with supplements in 480i or 480p. Most titles are encoded with
Physical size Single layer capacity
Dual layer capacity Triple layer capacity
cm, single sided 15 GB 30 GB 45 GB
12 cm, double
sided 30 GB 60 GB 90 GB
8 cm, single sided
4.7 GB 9.4 GB
8 cm, double sided 9.4 GB
compatibility will be available with all HD DVD players, allowing
consumers to have a single drive in their homes to play both HD DVD and
DVD discs. There is also a hybrid HD DVD which contains both DVD and HD
DVD versions of the same movie on a single disc, providing smoother
transition for the studios in terms of publishing movies, and letting
consumers with only DVD drives to still use the discs. DVD disc
replication companies can continue using their current production
equipment with only minor alterations when changing over to the format of
HD DVD replication. Due to the structure of the single-lens optical head,
both red and blue laser diodes can be used in smaller, more compact HD DVD
DVD uses a blue-violet 405 nm laser to read information from the disc
(DVDs use red 650 nm lasers).
shorter wavelength reduces diffraction and maintains a smaller spot size
of the laser. This allows data to be read from a higher density on the
disc surface. While DVDs and HD DVDs will be the same size physically, the
ability to store data at a higher density results in a larger total data
capacity in HD DVDs.
HD DVDs integrate content protection technology specified by AACS LA
(Advanced Access Content System License Authority). 'Audio Watermark
Protection' is also being considered by AACS for use on HD DVD. If
Watermark is adopted by AACS, all HD DVD players will have a sensor that
listens for inaudible audio watermarks in the soundtrack of movies.
Studios may insert this invisible mark in the soundtracks of theatrical
motion pictures. If an HD DVD player does not detect the invisible mark,
it means the disc is playing back a copy made from a theatrical print
(probably from illegal camcording), and will cause the player to refuse to
play the disc. The mark is made by varying the waveform of speech and
music in a regular pattern to convey a digital code. These variations are
too subtle to be heard by the human ear. Another variation of this system
can be used to prevent the playback of discs created by using a camcorder
and microphone on a home entertainment center playing a legitimate disc
purchased by a consumer. This variation for home entertainment utilizes a
watermark that differs from the cinema mark in that it is permitted in
normal, signed ROM discs, but generally not permitted on recordable
addition, HD DVD players must follow AACS guidelines pertaining to outputs
over analog connections. This is set by a flag called the Image Constraint
Token (ICT), which restricts the resolution for analog outputs without
HDCP to 960×540. The decision to set the flag to restrict output
('down-convert') is left to the content provider. Warner Pictures is a
proponent of ICT, and it is expected that Paramount and Universal will
implement down-conversion as well. As of March 2006, 5 of the 6 studios
releasing HD DVD content have announced they will not use
ICT/down-conversion for the time being. AACS guidelines require that any
title that implements the ICT must clearly state so on the
there is no Region Coding in the existing HD DVD specification the DVD
Forum is currently developing a regional lockout scheme.
DVDs use the iHD Interactive Format to allow interactive content to be
authored for discs. iHD is based on web technologies such as HTML, XML,
fairly easy transition for web developers. No existing DVD authoring
experience is required. In contrast, Blu-ray Disc content is authored
using either a scripting environment for basic content, or a Java-based
platform (BD-J) for advanced content. DVD video discs utilize pre-rendered
MPEG segments, selectable subtitle pictures, and simple programmatic
navigation which is considerably more primitive.
first HD DVD titles released on April 18, 2006 were The Last Samurai,
Million Dollar Baby, The Phantom of the Opera by Warner Home Video; and
Serenity by Universal Studios.
date, 125 titles have been released Worldwide, 88 in the United States,
and 37 in Japan.
April 18, 2006, Toshiba released the first HD DVD players for the United
States, the Toshiba HD-A1 and Toshiba HD-XA1. They utilize an Intel
Pentium 4 processor and contain 1 GB of RAM; the drive mechanism is also
an IDE HD DVD drive. The units run a specialized version of the Linux
operating system booting off a USB thumbdrive.
May 16 Toshiba released its first PC with a HD DVD drive, the Toshiba
Qosmio 35. This PC is the first to have a slim height optical disc drive.
Toshiba's Digital Products Division, introduced Toshiba Qosmio G35-AV600,
the latest version of its flagship '4-in-1' audio-video entertainment
notebook with new enhancements. The Toshiba G35-AV600 is a complete
package featuring Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 and
integrated TV tuner, digital video recorder (DVR), virtual surround-sound
stereo, and HDMI output. The notebook includes the world's first 1-bit
digital amplifier in a notebook PC.
has also released an add-on HD DVD drive for the Xbox 360 for $200. The
add-on, which attaches to the console via USB 2.0 cable, features
component output, but no HDMI output. It outputs 1080p over component for
games only. A VGA connection is required for 1080p output from the HD-DVD
addon drive. According to Microsoft, the Xbox 360 will not include an
internal HD DVD drive in future releases. Toshiba announced second
generation HD DVD players for the US this fall, the Toshiba HD-A2
(Expected Pricing and Expected Availability: $499.99, October 2006) and
Toshiba HD-XA2 ($999.99, December 2006). The high-end model, the HD-XA2,
will feature HDMI 1.3 and 1080p output.
$150 million dollar advertising campaign is being planned for the HD DVD.
The campaign is being handled by Goodby Silverstein & Partners, the
same agency that created the 'Got Milk?' campaign.
campaign will encompass all media: Print, Internet, television, and other
outlets. All advertising will boast the tagline 'The Look and Sound of
Perfect.' A new Web site was also launched on July 11, 2006, which
touts the HD DVD's superior video and audio capabilities and includes
trailers of HD DVD movies.
DVD is promoted by Toshiba, NEC, Sanyo, Microsoft, Hewlett Packard, Intel,
among others. In terms of major studios, HD DVD is currently exclusively
backed by Universal Studios and The Weinstein Company (through Genius
Products) and is non-exclusively backed by Paramount Pictures, Warner
Bros., New Line, HBO, DreamWorks, Image Entertainment, Magnolia Pictures,
Brentwood Home Video, Warner Music Group, Ryko, Goldhil Entertainment, and
DVD is product of the DVD Forum which works to promote broad acceptance of
DVD products on a worldwide basis, across entertainment, consumer
electronics and IT industries. The primary 20 companies involved with the
DVD Forum are: Hitachi, Ltd., IBM Corporation, Industrial and Technology
Research Institute, Intel Corporation, LG Electronics Inc., Matsushita
Electric Industrial Co. Ltd, Microsoft Corporation, Mitsubishi Electric
Corporation, NEC Corporation, PIONEER CORPORATION, Royal Philips
Electronics, SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD., SANYO Electric Co., Ltd.,
SHARP CORPORATION, Sony Corporation, THOMSON, Toshiba Corporation, Victor
Company of Japan, Limited, Walt Disney Pictures and Television Warner
Bros. Entertainment Inc.
companies, such as NEC or VidaBox, have developed dual-format or hybrid
technologies. NEC is developing a single chip that works with either HD
standard, while VidaBox has developed the world's first dual drive
compatible player that accommodates both Blu-ray and HD DVD discs.
Wikipedia information about
HD DVD. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License . It uses material
from the Wikipedia article 'HD DVD'
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